Software applications are tested against predetermined requirements to determine their functionality as part of a process known as functional testing. 

    Besides, verifying that the software operates by specified requirements and fulfils its intended functions accurately is the aim of functional testing.

    Purpose of Functional Testing

    Functional testing is done to make sure a software program meets business requirements and functions as intended. The following are a few goals of functional testing:

    1. UI Flow Test: Evaluating the user interface’s flow is another aspect of functional testing that is done to make sure users can easily browse the program.
    2. Functionality Validation: Examining every function of the application is part of the functional testing process that is accomplished by giving the necessary input and verifying that the result complies with the application’s functional requirements.
    3. Identification of Functional Defects: It seeks to locate any inconsistencies or flaws in the functionality of the software.
    4. Business Logic Testing: Functional testing verifies that the software’s fundamental business logic is implemented correctly since it entails evaluating the software’s ability to manage various inputs, scenarios, and business rules.

    Functional Testing Requirements

    The tester must be aware of the application’s anticipated behaviour to do functional testing since it might be given as a business specification paper or as acceptance criteria.

    Automation and manual methods are also available for functional testing even though it is advised to automate functional tests if you must run them frequently or if they are too complicated to conduct by hand to save time, effort, and money over time.

    Besides, tools for test automation streamline the testing procedure and assist in lowering the necessary resources, time, effort, and expense. Therefore, with the correct testing tools, such as JMeter, you may achieve high test coverage, efficiency, and quality.

    Different Types of Functional Testing Techniques

    There are various types of functional testing as listed below:

    1. Acceptance Testing: 

    To make sure that the built system satisfies all of the needs decided upon during the formation of the business requirements, acceptance testing is an essential phase in the software development life cycle. 

    This kind of testing is carried out immediately following system testing and before the application’s official release to the public. 

    Acceptance testing is an essential step in the software development process since it becomes a criterion for the user to either accept or reject the system.

    1. System Testing: 

    A key stage in the Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) is system testing, which verifies that every system component is seamlessly connected and functions following the requirements. 

    This type of testing, known as Black-Box testing, verifies the integrated system’s compliance with the specified standards. Further, system testing is done in a setting that is nearly identical to real life and in accordance with actual user behaviour. 

    On the other hand, to make sure the system is completely functioning and satisfies the business objectives, system testing must be done before user acceptance testing (UAT).

    1. Smoke Testing:

    Verifying that an application’s primary capabilities operate without a hitch is crucial once it has been developed. Besides, to make sure the application is prepared for the next round of testing, smoke testing is done on the recently released build. 

    However, smoke testing is carried out on builds that were produced during the early stages of development and are not yet stable. 

    Verifying that the application’s essential features are operating as intended and that the build is stable enough to proceed to the next testing phase is the aim of smoke testing. 

    Therefore, developers must address the issues and produce a fresh build for additional testing if any significant functionality is not functioning as intended during testing. If this happens, the specific build is rejected.

    1. Sanity Testing: 

    One crucial kind of testing that addresses the main features of an application is sanity testing since it is typically carried out on a fresh build that developers have produced for a comparatively stable application. 

    This testing’s primary goal is to confirm whether or not the application functions as intended to justify that the application is deemed ready for further testing if it passes the sanity test.

    Functional Testing Process

    Testing the application’s user interface (UI), databases, APIs, and functionality is known as functional testing. The procedures that testers typically follow, whether they use automated testing tools or manual testing, are shown below.

    1. Requirements Analysis: This is the first step of the functionality testing process that entails understanding and analyzing the key functionalities of the software being tested.
    2. Test Planning: Make a thorough test strategy based on these specifications to determine which functionalities require testing by describing the necessary testing setups and equipment. 

    Choose the ideal platform for test automation that works with your development workflow.

    1. Test Case Design: Create thorough test scenarios that address every program functioning component.
    2. Test Data Preparation: Produce test data for testing including for both positive and negative testing since it could contain both valid and invalid input data.
    3. Execute Tests: This is the fifth step of the testing process involving the execution of the test cases in line with the test strategy to enhance the tracking of the actual outcomes, taking into account any variations from the projections.
    4. Compare Results: In this step, contrast the test findings that were obtained with those that were anticipated.
    5. Test Reports: Make a thorough test report detailing the status of the test cases after you have examined the test findings. 

    After the reported problems are fixed by the developers, retest the program to make sure there are no more bugs. Regression testing is the term for this iterative testing.


    In conclusion, Functional Testing is essential since it enhances the identification of bugs leading to the development of a proper solution towards solving the bug issues detected in a software or application.

    Therefore, functional testing enables one to provide users with an admirable user experience that satisfies their needs through the general look and functionality.